Rules of the Association
1. The name of the organization shall be the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
2. The object of the Association is to promote the study of animal behaviour, by the encouragement and publication of the results of research, the holding of meetings and such other activities as may from time to time be held to forward the purposes of the Association, including the purchase, holding and sale of property and the establishment of companies.
3. The membership of the Association shall be open to all who are interested in the study of behaviour. Honorary members may be appointed: the total number of honorary members shall be fixed in the Bye-Laws.
D. Officers and Council
4. The affairs of the Association shall be conducted by a Council, consisting of a President, a Treasurer, one or more Secretaries, an Executive Editor of the Journal, a Newsletter Editor, and not fewer than six and not more than nine ordinary members (exclusive of co-opted members). The Library shall be managed by a Librarian, who shall report to Council annually. Editors of the Journal, other than Executive Editor(s), shall be members of Council only if elected as such.
5. The President, Treasurer, Secretaries to committees, European Secretary, Executive Editor, Newsletter Editor and Librarian (hereinafter referred to as the Officers) and three ordinary members of Council shall be elected by members of the Association by such procedure as is laid down in the Bye-Laws. The officers and elected members of Council may co-opt up to four additional members.
6. The President, European Secretary, Secretaries to Committees and ordinary members shall normally be elected for a total period of not more than three successive years and the Treasurer, Executive Editor, Newsletter Editor and Secretary of the Society for a total period of not more than five successive years subject each year to approval at the Annual General Meeting. Re-election of any officer within their normal period of office may be sought in writing to be received by the Secretary a minimum of 21 days prior to the Annual General Meeting. The Librarian shall be eligible for re-election each year.
7. Three of the ordinary members of Council shall retire each year, retirement being in order of seniority.
8. Ordinary members who retire from Council under Rule 7 shall not be eligible for re-election as ordinary members of Council, or for co-opted membership until the Annual General Meeting following that at which their retirement takes effect.
9. If any casual vacancy occurs among the Officers and members of Council, the Council may fill that vacancy by co-option. All co-opted members of Council shall cease to be members of Council at the Annual General Meeting following their co-option, but shall be eligible for election or co-option as ordinary members or Officers of Council as though they had not served thereon during the previous year.
10. The quorum for a meeting of Council shall be four members.
E. General Meetings
11. Not later than the annual summer conference in each year the Council shall call an Annual General Meeting of the Association, at which it shall present a report of its work since the previous Annual General Meeting, and also an audited statement of the financial position of the Association, and at which it shall arrange for the election or approval of officers and ordinary members of Council as laid down in the Bye-Laws and D6.
12. The Council shall have power to call Ordinary General Meetings of the Association at such other times as it shall think fit, to transact scientific or other business necessary to promote the objects of the Association.
13. The Quorum for a General Meeting shall be seven members.
14. Not less than six weeks and not more than twelve weeks from receiving a request to that effect from not less than a quarter of the members, the Council shall call an Extraordinary Meeting to discuss such matters and to vote upon such resolutions as may be demanded by the requesting members. Council itself may place upon the agenda of such an Extraordinary General Meeting any matters it thinks fit, provided that three weeks' notice of this business is given to members.
15. Voting shall be one member, one vote; ASAB members cannot vote in absentia.
16. Every member of the Association shall pay an annual membership fee as may from time to time be laid down in the Bye-Laws.
17. Membership subscriptions shall be due on 1 October of each year, in payment for the following year.
18. Any member paying in advance such a sum as may from time to time be laid down in the Bye-Laws shall become a life-member of the Association and shall be liable for no further subscriptions nor for an entrance fee at the time current, but such sum shall not be recoverable, wholly, or in part, by the member, nor by his representatives, heirs or assignees.
19. No member shall receive the Journal until his or her subscription for the current year has been paid. Membership shall automatically lapse if payment is not made by 1 December for the succeeding year.
G. Alteration of Rules and Bye-Laws
20. The Rules and Bye-Laws of the Association may be altered only by a vote of the members at a properly constituted Ordinary, Extraordinary or Annual General Meeting, provided that:
- A copy of any new or altered rule be sent to every member at least 21 days before the meeting.
- A copy of any new or altered Bye-Law be sent to every member at least 14 days before the meeting.
- At least three quarters of the members present at the meeting vote for the alteration or introduction of a rule.
- More members vote for the alteration or introduction of a Bye-Law than vote against such alteration or introduction.
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H. Election and Removal of Members
21. Candidates for election to membership of the Association must be proposed by a member or they may apply for and receive nomination by the Council. The number of honorary members shall not exceed six.
22. The election of new members may take place at any Council meeting. The dissent of a majority of Council shall disqualify any candidate.
23. Any member of the Association may be removed from membership by unanimous decision of Council, but such removal may be reversed by an Extraordinary General Meeting of the Association, a bare majority of those voting being sufficient to cancel the member's removal.
24. The Council shall conduct its business in accordance with the standing orders which it shall lay down, or by means of such Sub-Committees or special Committees as it may from time to time appoint. In absence of the President, the Council shall appoint its own Chairman, but the Secretaries of the Association shall be the Secretaries of the Council.
25. Six weeks before the Annual General Meeting the Secretaries shall send to all members a Preliminary Notice of the Meeting. On this notice shall appear:
- The names of officers and members of Council.
- The number of meetings of Council held since the last meeting of Council prior to sending out the last preliminary notice.
- The number of attendances of each officer and member of the Council at these meetings.
- An indication of the names and order of seniority of those members of Council who are due to retire automatically at the Annual General Meeting under Rule D7.
The notice shall invite nominations for officers and to fill the vacancies among the ordinary members of Council. Such nominations must be made by at least two members of the Association, must be accompanied by the candidate's signed statement of his willingness to serve, and must reach one of the secretaries within three weeks of the sending out of the Preliminary Notice.
26. The Council may itself nominate officers and ordinary members at any time up to the sending out of the ballot-paper for election of officers and ordinary members of Council.
27. The Secretaries shall send to every member, not later than ten days before the Annual General Meeting, a complete list of nominations for officers and ordinary members of Council, when necessary in the form of a ballot-paper, which, duly filled in, be sent or handed to the Secretaries before or at the Annual General Meeting until such time as the Chairman declare the ballot closed. Scrutineers appointed by the Annual General Meeting shall examine the ballot-papers and declare elected those candidates who have received the necessary number of votes, in accordance with the numbers of vacancies to be filled.
28. In the event of a serving officer failing to be approved for continued service at the AGM, an interim replacement will be appointed with immediate effect by Council, and the procedures under 25, 26 and 27 initiated to nominate and elect a replacement at the following AGM.
29. At any meeting of the Association, the chair shall normally be taken by the President or Chairman of Council, or failing them, such other person as the meeting shall appoint.
30. The Council shall have full power to arrange such meetings or lectures as it may consider to promote the objects of the Association.
K. The Journal
31. Members may not subscribe to the Journal as nominees of any organization.
32. The annual subscription shall be thirty-five pounds except under the following conditions:
- Subscribers who wish to obtain a hard (paper) copy of the journal shall pay a further ten pounds on their subscription fees.
- Subscriptions for full-time student members, unwaged members and retired members who are 65 years of age and older, shall be fifteen pounds per year, by whatever method payment is made.
- The fee for Life Membership shall be twenty times the annual subscription.
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Articles of the Association
1. In these Articles:-
- “the Act” means the Companies Act 1948 as amended by the Companies Act 1967;
- “the Seal” means the common seal of the Company;
- “Secretary” means any person appointed to perform the duties of the Secretary of the Company;
- “the United Kingdom” means Great Britain and Northern Ireland;
- expressions referring to writing shall, unless the contrary intention appears, be construed as including references to printing, lithography, photography and other modes of representing or reproducing words in a visible form;
- and words importing the singular number only shall include the plural number, and vice versa;
- words importing the masculine gender only shall include the feminine gender, and,
- words importing persons shall include corporations;
- unless the context otherwise requires, words or expressions contained in these Articles shall bear the same meaning as in the Act or any statutory modification thereof in force at the date at which these Articles become binding on the Company.
2. The number of members with which the Company proposes to be registered is 25, but the Directors may from time to time register an increase of members.
3. The subscribers to the Memorandum of Association and such other persons as the Directors shall admit to membership shall be members of the Company.
4. The Company shall in each year hold a General Meeting as its Annual General Meeting in addition to any other meetings in that year, and shall specify the meeting as such in the notices calling it; and not more than fifteen months shall elapse between the date of one Annual General Meeting of the Company and that of the next. Provided that so long as the Company holds its first Annual General Meeting within eighteen months of its incorporation, it need not hold it in the year of its incorporation or in the following year. The Annual General Meeting shall be held at such time and place as the Directors shall appoint.
5. All General Meetings other than Annual General Meetings shall be called Extraordinary General Meetings.
6. The Directors may, whenever they think fit, convene an Extraordinary General Meeting, and Extraordinary General Meeting shall also be convened on such requisition, or, in default, may be convened by such requisitionists, as provided by section 132 of the Act. If at any time there are not within the United Kingdom sufficient Directors capable of acting to form a quorum, any Director or any two members of the Company may convene an Extraordinary General Meeting in the same manner as nearly as possible as that in which meetings may be convened by the Directors. Where in the opinion of the Directors it is reasonably practicable to do so General Meetings shall be held at a time and place convenient for members who are attending a Council Meeting of the Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Notice of General Meeting
7. An Annual General Meeting and a meeting called for the passing of a Special Resolution shall be called by twenty-one days’ notice in writing at the least, and a meeting for the Company other than an Annual General Meeting or a meeting for the passing of a Special Resolution shall be called by fourteen days’ notice in writing at the least. The notice shall be exclusive of the day on which it is served or deemed to be served and of the day for which it is given and shall specify the place, the day the hour of meeting, and in case of special business the general nature of that business, and shall be given in manner herinafter mentioned or in such other manner, if any, as may be prescribed by the Company in General Meeting, to such persons as are, under the Articles of the Company, entitle to receive such notices from the Company: Provided that a meeting of the Company shall, notwithstanding that it is called by shorter notice than that specified in this Article, be deemed to have been duly called if it is so agreed:-
- in the case of a meeting called as the Annual General Meeting, by all the members entitled to attend and vote thereat; and
- in the case of any other meeting, by a majority in number of the members having a right to attend an vote at the meeting, being a majority together representing not less than 95 per cent, of the total voting rights at any meeting of all the members.
8. The accidental omission to give notice of a meeting to, or the non-receipt of notice of a meeting by, any person entitled to receive notice shall not invalidate the proceedings at that meeting.
Proceedings at General Meetings
9. All business shall be deemed special that is transacted at an Extraordinary General Meeting, and also that is transacted at an Annual General Meeting, with the exception of the consideration of the accounts, balance sheets and the reports of the Directors and Auditors, the election of Directors in the place of those retiring and the appointment of and the fixing of the remuneration of the Auditors.
10. No business shall be transacted at any General Meeting unless a quorum of members is present at the time when the meeting proceeds to business; save as herein otherwise provided, three members present in person shall be a quorum.
11. If within half an hour from the time appointed for the meeting a quorum is not present, the meeting, if convened upon the requisition of members, shall be dissolved; in any other case it shall stand adjourned to the same day in the next week, at the same time and place, or to such other day and at such other time and place as the Directors may determine, and if at the adjourned meeting a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time appointed for the meeting the members present shall be a quorum.
12. The chairman, if any, of the board of Directors shall preside as Chairman at every General Meeting of the company, or if there is no such Chairman, or if he shall not be present within fifteen minutes after the time appointed for the holding of the meeting or is unwilling to act, the Directors present shall elect one of their number to be Chairman of the meeting.
13. If at any meeting no Director is willing to act as Chairman or if no Director is present within fifteen minutes after the time appointed for holding the meeting, the members present shall choose one of their number to be Chairman of the meeting.
14. The Chairman may, with the consent of any meeting at which a quorum is present (and shall if so directed by the meeting), adjourn the meeting from time to time and from place to place, but no business shall be transacted at any adjourned meeting other than the business left unfinished at the meeting from which the adjournment took place. When a meeting is adjourned for thirty days or more, notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given as in the case of an original meeting. Save as aforesaid, it shall not be necessary to give any notice of an adjournment or of the business to be transacted at an adjourned meeting.
15. At any General Meeting a resolution put to the vote of the meeting shall be decided on a show of hands, unless a poll is (before or on the declaration of the result of the show of hands) demanded:-
- by the Chairman; or
- by at least three members present in person or by proxy; or
- by any member or member present in person or by proxy and representing not less than one-tenth of the total voting rights of all the members having the right to vote at the meeting.
Unless a poll be so demanded a declaration by the Chairman that a resolution has on a show of hands been carried or carried unanimously, or by a particular majority, or lost, and an entry to that effect in the book containing the minutes of proceedings of the Company, shall be conclusive evidence of the fact without proof of the number or proportion of the votes recorded in favour of or against such resolution. The demand for a poll may be withdrawn.
16. Except as provided in Article 18, if a poll is duly demanded it shall be taken in such manner as the Chairman directs and the result of the poll shall be deemed to be the resolution of the meeting at which the poll was demanded.
17. In the case of an equality of votes, whether on a show of hands or on a poll, the Chairman of the meeting at which the show of hands takes place or at which the poll is demanded shall be entitled to a second or casting vote.
18. A poll demanded on the election of a Chairman, or on a question of adjournment, shall be taken forthwith. A poll demanded on any other question shall be taken at such time as the Chairman of the meeting directs, and any business other than that upon which a poll has been demanded may be proceeded with pending the taking of the poll.
19. Subject to the provisions of the Act, a resolution in writing signed by all the members for the time being entitled to receive notice of and to attend and vote at General Meetings (or being corporations by their duly authorized representatives) shall be as valid and effective as if the same had been passed at a General Meeting of the Company duly convened and held.
Votes of Members
20. Every member shall have one vote.
21. A member of unsound mind, or in respect of whom an order has been made by any court having jurisdiction in lunacy, may vote, whether on a show of hands or on a poll, by his committee, receiver, curator bonis or other person in the nature of a committee, receiver or curator bonis appointed by that court, and any such committee, receiver curator bonis or other person may, on a poll, vote by proxy.
22. No member shall be entitled to vote at any General Meeting unless all moneys presently payable by him to the Company have been paid.
23. On a poll votes may be given either personally or by proxy.
24. The instrument appointing a proxy shall be in writing under the hand of the appointer or of his attorney duly authorized in writing, or, if the appointor is a corporation, either under seal or under the hand of an officer or attorney duly authorized. A proxy need not be a member of the Company.
25. The instrument appointing a proxy and the power of attorney or other authority, if any, under which it is signed or a notarially certified copy of that power or authority shall be deposited at the registered office of the Company or at such other place within the United Kingdom as is specified for that purpose in the notice convening the meeting, not less than forty-eight hours before the time for holding the meeting or adjourned meeting at which the person named in the instrument proposes to vote, or, in the case of a poll, not less than twenty-four hours before the time appointed for the taking of the poll, and in default the instrument of proxy shall not be treated as valid.
26. An instrument appointing a proxy shall be in the following form or a form as near thereto as circumstances admit:- (download form)
27. Where it is desired to afford members an opportunity of voting for or against a resolution the instrument appointing a proxy shall be in the following form or a form as near thereto as circumstances admit:- (download form)
28. The instrument appointing a proxy shall be deemed to confer authority to demand or join in demanding a poll.
29. A vote given in accordance with the terms of an instrument of proxy shall be valid notwithstanding the previous death or insanity of the principal or revocation of the proxy or of the authority under which the proxy was executed, provided that no intimation in writing of such death, insanity or revocation as aforesaid shall have been received by the Company at the office before the commencement of the meeting or adjourned meeting or adjourned meeting at which the proxy is used.
Corporations acting by Representatives at Meetings
30. Any corporation which is a member of the Company may by resolution of its directors or other governing body authorize such person as it thinks fit to act as its representative at any meeting of the Company, and the person so authorized shall be entitled to exercise the same powers on behalf of the corporation which he represents as that corporation could exercise if it were an individual member of the Company.
31. The number of the Directors and the names of the first Directors shall be determine in writing by the subscribers of the Memorandum of Association, or a majority of them. A person may be appointed a Director notwithstanding that he shall have attained the age of seventy years, and no Director shall be liable to vacate office by reason of his attaining the age of seventy years or any other age.
32. The Directors shall be paid all traveling, hotel and other expenses properly incurred by them in attending and returning from meetings of the Directors or any committee of the Directors or General Meetings of the Company or in connection with the business of the Company.
33. The Directors may exercise all the powers of the Company to borrow money, and to mortgage or charge its undertaking and property, or any part thereof, and to issue debentures, debenture stock and other securities, whether outright or as security for any debt, liability or obligation of the Company or of any third party.
Powers and Duties of Directors
34. The business of the Company shall be managed by the Directors, who may pay all expenses incurred in promoting and registering the Company, and may exercise all such powers of the Company as are not, by the Act or by these Articles, required to be exercised by the Company in General Meeting, subject, nevertheless, to the provisions of the Act of these Articles and to such regulations, being not inconsistent with the aforesaid provisions, as may be prescribed by the Company in General Meeting; but no regulations made by the Company in General Meeting shall invalidate any prior act of the Directors which would have been valid if that regulation had not been made.
35. The Directors may from time to time and at any time by power of attorney appoint any company, firm or person or body of persons, whether nominated directly or indirectly by the Directors, to be attorney or attorneys of the Company, for such purpose and with such powers, authorities and discretions (not exceeding those vested in or exercisable by the Directors under these Articles) and for such period and subject to such conditions as they may think fit, and any such powers of attorney may contain such provisions for the protection and convenience of persons dealing with any such attorney as the Directors may think fit, and may also authorize any such attorney to delegate all or any of the powers authorities and discretions vested in him. Unless otherwise determined by a resolution at a General Meeting, of the intention to propose which resolution express notice is given in the notice convening the meeting, the Directors shall at all times entrust the editorship of the Company’s journal, or of each of the Company’s journals, to an Editorial Committee who shall have sole, final judgment and decision as to what scientific matter is suitable for publication in the journal, to what articles preference shall be given, what modifications shall be required of the author and what contributions shall be refused. The Directors shall have no power to act as an editorial board, their function in this respect being limited to the selection and appointment of the Editorial Committee which shall consist of such persons as the Directors shall in their absolute discretion see fit to appoint.
36. All cheques, promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange and other negotiable instruments, and all receipts for moneys paid to the Company, shall be signed, drawn, accepted, endorsed or otherwise executed, as the case may be, in such manner as the Directors shall from time to time by resolution determine.
37. The Directors shall cause minutes to be made in books provided for the purpose:-
- of all appointment of officers made by the Directors:
- of the names of the Directors present at each meeting of the Directors and of any committee of the Directors:
- of all resolutions and proceedings at all meetings of the Company, and of the Directors, and of Committees of Directors.
and every Director present at any meeting of directors or committee of Directors shall sign his name in a book to be kept for that purpose.
Disqualification of Directors
38. The office of Director shall be vacated if the Director -
- without the consent of the Company in General Meeting holds any office of profit under the Company; or
- becomes bankrupt or makes any arrangement or composition with his creditors generally or
- becomes prohibited from being a Director by reason of any order made under section 188 of the Act; or
- becomes of unsound mind; or
- resigns his office by notice in writing to the Company; or
- ceases to be a Director by virtue of section 185 of the Act; or
- is directly or indirectly interested in any contract with the Company and fails to declare the nature of is interest in manner required by section 199 of the Act.
A Director shall not vote in respect of any contract in which he is interested or any matter arising thereout, and if he does so vote his vote shall not be counted.
Rotation of Directors
39. At the first Annual General Meeting of the Company all the Directors shall retire from office, and at the Annual General Meeting in every subsequent year one-third of the Directors for the time being, or, if their number is not three or a multiple of three, then the number nearest one-third, shall retire from office.
40. The Directors to retire in every year shall be those who have been longest in office since their last election, but as between persons who became Directors on the same day those to retire shall (unless they otherwise agree among themselves) be determined by lot.
41. A retiring Director shall be eligible for re-election.
42. The Company at the meeting at which a Director retires in manner aforesaid may fill the vacated office by electing a person thereto, and in default the retiring Director shall, if offering himself for re-election, be deemed to have been re-elected, unless at such meeting it is expressly resolved not to fill such vacated office or unless a resolution for the re-election of such Director shall have been put to the meeting and lost.
43. No person other than a Director retiring at the meeting shall, unless recommended by the Directors, be eligible for election to the office of director at any General Meeting unless, not less than three nor more than twenty-one days after the date appointed for the meeting, there shall have been left at the registered office of the Company notice in writing, signed by a member duly qualified to attend and vote at the meeting for which such notice is given, of his intention to propose such person for election, and also notice in writing signed by that person of his willingness to be elected.
44. The Company may from time to time by Ordinary Resolution increase or reduce the number of Directors, and may also determine in what rotation the increase or reduced number is to go out of office.
45. The Directors shall have power at any time, and from time to time, to appoint any person to be a Director, either to fill a casual vacancy or as an addition to the existing Directors, but so that the total number of Directors shall not at any time exceed the number fixed in accordance with these Articles. Any Director so appointed shall hold office only until the next following Annual General Meeting, and shall then be eligible for re-election, but shall not be taken into account in determining the Directors who are to retire by rotation at such meeting.
46. The Company may by Ordinary Resolution, of which special notice has been given in accordance with section 142 of the Act, remove any Director before the expiration of his period of office, notwithstanding anything in these Articles or in any agreement between the Company and such director. Such removal shall be without prejudice to any claim such Director may have for damages for breach of any contract for service between him and the Company.
47. The Company may by Ordinary Resolution appoint another person in place of a Director removed from office under the immediately preceding Article. Without prejudice to the powers of the Directors under Article 45, the Company in General Meeting may appoint any person to be a Director, either to fill a casual vacancy or as an additional director. The person appointed to fill such a vacancy shall be subject to retirement at the same time as if he had become a director on the day on which the Director in whose place he is appointed was last elected a Director.
Proceedings of Directors
48. The Directors may meet together for the dispatch of business, adjourn and otherwise regulate their meeting, as they think fit. Questions arising at any meeting shall be decided by a majority of votes. In the case of any equality of votes the Chairman shall have a second or casting vote. A Director may, and the Secretary on the requisition of a Director shall, at any time summon a meeting of the Directors. It shall not be necessary to give notice of a meeting of Directors to any Director for the time being absent from the United Kingdom.
49. The quorum necessary for the transaction of the business of the Directors may be fixed by the Directors, and unless so fixed shall be two.
50. The continuing Directors may act notwithstanding any vacancy in their body, but, if and so long as their number is reduced below the number fixed by or pursuant to the Articles of the Company as the necessary quorum of Directors, the continuing Directors or Director may act for the purpose of increasing the number of Directors to that number, or of summoning a General Meeting of the Company, but for no other purpose.
51. The directors may elect a Chairman of their meetings and determine the period for which he is to hold office; but, if no such Chairman is elected, or if at any meeting the Chairman is not present within five minutes after the time appointed for holding the same, the Directors present may choose one of their number to be Chairman of the meeting.
52. The Directors may delegate any of their power to committees consisting of such member or members of their body as they think fit; any committee so formed shall in the exercise of the powers so delegated, conform to any regulations that may be imposed on it by the Directors, provided that all decisions of such committees shall be reported in due course to the Directors.
53. A committee may elect a Chairman of its meetings; if no such Chairman is elected, or if at any meeting the Chairman is not present within five minutes after the time appointed for holding the same, the members present may choose one of their number to be Chairman of the meeting.
54. A committee may meet and adjourn as it thinks proper. Questions arising at any meeting shall be determined by a majority of votes of the members present, and in the case of an equality of votes the Chairman shall have a second or casting vote.
55. All acts done by any meeting of the Directors or of a committee of directors, or by any person acting as a Director, shall, notwithstanding that it be afterwards discovered that there was some defect in the appointment of any such Director or person acting as aforesaid, or that they or any of them were disqualified, be as valid as if every such person had been duly appointed and was qualified to be a Director.
56. A resolution in writing, signed by all the Directors for the time being entitled to receive notice of a meeting of the Directors, shall be as valid and effectual as if it had been passed at a meeting of the Directors duly convened and held.
57. The Secretary shall be appointed by the Directors for such term, at such term, at such remuneration and upon such conditions as they may think fit, and any Secretary so appointed my be removed by them.
58. A provision of the Act or these Articles requiring or authorizing a thing to be done by or to a Director and the Secretary shall not be satisfied by its being done by or to the same person acting both as Director and as, or in place of, the secretary.
59. The directors shall provide for the safe custody of the seal, which shall only be used by the authority of the Directors or of a committee of the directors authorized by the directors in that behalf, and every instrument to which the seal shall be affixed shall be signed by a Director and shall be countersigned by the Secretary or by a second Director or by some other person appointed by the Directors for the purpose.
60. The Directors shall cause proper books of account to be kept with respect to -
- all sums of money received and expended by the Company and the matters in respect of which the receipt and expenditure takes place;
- all sales and purchases of goods by the Company; and
- the assets and liabilities of the Company.
Proper books shall not be deemed to be kept if there are not kept such books of account as are necessary to give a true and fair view of the state of account of the Company’s affairs and to explain its transactions.
61. The books of account shall be kept at the registered office of the Company, or, subject to section 147 (3) of the Act, at such other place or places as the Directors think fit, and shall always be open to the inspection of the Directors.
62. The Directors shall from time to time determine whether, and to what extent, and at what extent, and at what times and places, and under what conditions or regulations, the accounts and books of the Company or any of them shall be open to the inspection of members not being Directors, and no member ( not being a Director) shall have any right of inspecting any account or book or document of the Company except as conferred by statute or authorized by the Directors or by the Company in General Meeting.
63. The Director shall from time to time in accordance with sections 148, 150 and 157 of the Act, cause to be prepared and to be laid before the Company in General Meeting such profit and loss accounts, balance sheets, group accounts (if any) and reports as are referred to in those sections.
64. A copy of every balance sheet (including every document required by law to be annexed thereto) which is to be laid before the Company in General Meeting, together with a copy of the Auditor’s report, shall not less than twenty-one days before the date of the meeting be sent to every member of, and every holder of debentures of the Company. Provided that this Articles shall not require a copy of those documents to be sent to any person of whose address the Company is not aware or to more than one of the joint holders of any debentures.
65. Auditors shall be appointed and their duties regulated in accordance with sections 159 to 162 of the Act and section 14 of the Companies Act 1967.
66. A notice may be given by the Company to any member either personally or by sending it by post to him or to his registered address, or (if he has no registered address within the United Kingdom) to the address, if any, within the United Kingdom supplied by him to the Company for the giving of notice to him. Where a notice is sent by post, service of the notice shall be deemed to be effected by properly addressing, prepaying and posting a letter containing the notice, and to have been effected in the case of a notice of a meeting at the expiration of twenty four hours after the letter containing the same is posted, and in any other case at the times at which the letter would be delivered in the ordinary course of post.
67. Notice of every General Meeting shall be given in any manner hereinbefore authorized to :-
- every member except those members who (having no registered address within the United Kingdom) have not supplied to the Company an address within the United Kingdom of the giving of notices to them;
- every person being a legal personal representative or a trustee in bankruptcy of a member where the member, but for his death or bankruptcy, would be entitled to receive notice of the meeting; and
- the auditor for the time being of the Company. No other person shall be entitled to receive notices of General Meetings.
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